- Gail Osherenko and Oran R. Young, The Age
of the Arctic: Hot Conflicts and Cold Realities. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1989, Ch. 2.
- Hugh Brody, The People's Land. Harmondsworth,
U.K.: Penguin, 1975 and Mel Watkins ed., Dene Nation: The Colony
Within. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1977.
- Osherenko and Young, op. cit., Ch. 4.
- All three cases are analyzed at length in
Oran R. Young and Gail Osherenko eds., Polar Politics: Creating
International Environmental Regimes. Ithaca: Cornell University
- Simon Lyster, International Wildlife Law.
Cambridge: Grotius Publishers, 1985, Ch. 3.
- Willy Ostreng, Politics in High Latitudes:
The Svalbard Archipelago. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University
- Pål Prestrud and Ian Stirling, "The
International Polar Bear Agreement and the Current Status of
Polar Bear Conservation," Aquatic Mammals, 20 (1994), 113-124.
- On the distinction between institutions and
organizations, see Oran R. Young, International Cooperation:
Building Regimes for Natural Resources and the Environment.
Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1989, Ch. 2.
- David Scrivener, "Environmental Cooperation
in the Arctic: From Strategy to Council," Security Policy
Library No. 1, Oslo: The Norwegian Atlantic Committee, 1996.
- Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme,
Arctic Pollution Issues: A State of the Arctic Environment Report.
Oslo: AMAP , 1997.
- Olav Schram Stokke and Ola Tunander eds.,
The Barents Region: Cooperation in Arctic Europe. London: Sage,
- David D. Caron, "The International Whaling
Commission and the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission:
The Institutional Risks of Coercion in Consensual Structures,"
American Journal of International Law, 89 (1995), 154-174.
- Christopher C. Joyner, "Ice-Covered Regions
in International Law," Natural Resources Journal, 31 (1991),
213-242. For a discussion of American-Canadian differences involving
the treatment of ice-covered areas, see Christopher Kirkey,
"Smoothing Troubled Waters: The 1988 Canada-United States
Arctic Co-operation Agreement," International Journal,
50 (Spring 1995), 401-426.
- For an up-to-date account of the ATS see Christopher
C. Joyner, Governing the Frozen Commons: The Antarctic Regime
and Environmental Protection. Columbia: University of South
Carolina Press, 1998.
- Donald R. Rothwell, The Polar Regions and
the Development of International Law. Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1996, Ch. 6.
- Oran R. Young, "Institutional Linkages
in International Society: Polar Perspectives," Global Governance,
2 (January-April 1996), 1-23 an d Richard Herr, "Regime
Formation and Regime Overlap: Living Resource Management in
the Southern Ocean," unpublished manuscript, University
of Tasmania, 1997.
- Oran R. Young, "Arctic Governance: Bringing
the High Latitudes in from the Cold," International Environmental
Affairs, 9 (Winter 1997), 54-68.
- Finn Lynge, Arctic Wars, Animal Rights, Endangered
Peoples. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1992.
- Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna (CAFF),
"Strategic Plan for the Conservation of Arctic Biological
Diversity," working group document dated September 1998.
- Terry Fenge, "POPs in the Arctic: Turning
Science into Policy," Northern Perspectives, 25 (Winter
- Steven B. Young, To the Arctic: An Introduction
to the Far Northern World. New York: John Wiley, 1989.
- National Research Council, The Bering Sea
Ecosystem. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996.
- M.M.R. Freeman and L.N. Carbyn eds., Traditional
Knowledge and Renewable Resource Management in Northern Regions.
Edmonton: Canadian Circumpolar Institute, 1988.
- Oran R. Young, "Creating an Arctic Sustainable
Development Strategy," First Stefansson Memorial Lecture,
Stefansson Arctic Institute, Akureyri, Iceland, December 1998.